What is Diabetes?

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What is Diabetes Mellitus, or simply Diabetes?

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.[2] This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polydipsia (increased thirst) polyuria (frequent urination),and polyphagia (increased hunger)

What are three main types of diabetes mellitus?

Type 1 DM results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.
Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”.
Gestational diabetes is the third main form that occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.

Types 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that cannot be cured.

However,all forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became available in 1921, and type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications. With limited success, Pancreas transplants have been tried in type 1 DM; gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 DM. After delivery of the baby, Gestational diabetes usually resolves . Without proper treatments, Diabetes can cause a multitude of complications. Acute complications include hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. There are some serious long-term complications including cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage). Treatment of diabetes is important, lifestyle factors such as to quit smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight as well as blood pressure control.

Protection from Heart Disease

Diabetic Diet is a Top Priority

Careful consideration of your food intake will forever be in your best interest.
The most notable recommendation for a healthy diet is the American Heart Association’s “heart healthy” or “prudent” diet. This is how you can keep your organs active and healthy. You get less than 30 percent of calories from fat, 10 percent of calories from saturated fat, and three hundred milligrams of total cholesterol. However, even though this diet has been known for reducing the incidence of
heart disease, its effectiveness in the treatment of diabetes is not impressive. By and large, you will experience better results with the very low-fat vegetarian diets and the relatively low-fat Mediterranean diets.
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Very Low-Fat Vegetarian Diets

The low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets have both been proven to be strong in the battle against heart disease. Countless researchers have worked to discover that not only do these diets curb the levels of cholesterol, but they also reverse the usual course of high cholesterol.This sort of diet contains a variety of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains. Additional fats of any type, such as oils, margarine, shortening, mayonnaise, and oil-based salad dressings, are almost completely avoided.
Plant foods with higher fat content, such as seeds, avocados, nuts, and olives are restricted if not completely eliminated. The total fat content should not exceed 10 percent of the calories, with saturated fat at about 2 percent. Some of the very low-fat diets like this include tiny amounts of egg whites and nonfat milk products. Meanwhile, other programs are very strict when it comes to the vegan diet, with no consumption of eggs, dairy products, or meat.

Low-Fat, Mediterranean-Style Diets

Diet-savvy patients wonder how high-fat diets can be very effective at controlling the level of blood sugar since these diets also tend to be low in carbohydrates. Owing to their high content of good fat and low amounts of bad fat, Mediterranean-style diets lead us to think that they will actually cause damage
to the heart, but this is not always the case. According to medical research, not all high-fat diets cause heart damage. Some such diets may actually take the heart under its wing and protect it. So, what does the Mediterranean diet
really involve?
Considering the details of this diet, we might notice that it focuses on a certain assortment of foods. These foods usually undergo minimal commercial processing, and if possible are seasonally fresh and grown locally. As a daily dessert, fresh fruits are usually the choice, with sweets eaten only a few times
a week. Hey, a few times is better than none! Olive oil serves as the main source of fat, and shortening, margarine, butter, and other forms of hard fat are not used much. The total fat consumed should be around 30 to 35 percent of calories, and not in excess of 7 to 8 percent saturated fat.Food items from animals are supposed to be eaten in moderation, and red meat should be consumed only a few times a month. There is slightly more poultry involved in these diets than red meat, while fish is eaten two to three
times a week. No more than four eggs should be consumed per week. Even if it is okay for you to eat dairy, your dairy diet should principally be cheeseand yogurt. Alcohol should be limited as much as possible.
Why are Mediterranean and very low-fat vegetarian diets recommended as healthy for heart disease and diabetes patients? They are, in fact, very different from the majority of diets found today.
To begin, although the Mediterranean-style and the very low-fat vegetarian diets have different amounts of total fat, they are actually comprised of the same food content. This is true especially because both diets are based on legumes, vegetables, whole grains, and fruits. The two diets also provide
plenty of plant protein, vitamins, fiber, minerals, and other compounds necessary for a healthy body and a healthy heart. It’s a sure thing that they are also both low in bad fat, with no saturated trans fat or cholesterol, which are all agents of disease. Their main difference involves the use of olive oil in the
Mediterranean program, while in the very low-fat vegetarian diet, higher-fat plant foods like nuts, seeds, olives, and avocados are considered. Even if these are consumed, they still promote good cardiac health.

Broccoli Fennel Velvet Soup

Here is a delicious number from Carol Gelles!
More Diabetic recipes Here!

Broccoli Fennel Velvet Soup

The texture of this soup should be as smooth and luxurious as velvet. I sampled a version of this
at L’Ecole, a restaurant staffed by the students of the French Culinary Institute in New York
City. They served this together with a cauliflower soup ladled into the bowl side by side. You
can make a similarly dramatic presentation using the Red Pepper Bisque on page 56.
2½ cups chicken or vegetable broth
1 cup water
3 cups broccoli florets
2 cups chopped fennel
½ cup sliced leek (white and light green parts)
2 tablespoons lightly packed fennel fronds
½ teaspoon dried tarragon
¼ teaspoon ground black pepper
Salt to taste
¼ to ½ cup milk or additional broth (optional)
1 In a 2-quart saucepan, bring the broth and water to a boil. Add the broccoli, fennel, leek,
fennel fronds, tarragon, and pepper; return to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer, uncovered, 40
minutes or until vegetables are very soft.
2 Pour the soup into a blender or food processor fitted with a steel blade. Cover and process
until smooth. Season with salt, adding enough milk or additional broth to make a soup that is
very thick but still pours easily into a bowl—or to desired consistency.
SERVES: 4
Diabetic Exchanges: 1½ vegetable; ¾ fat
REDUCED PROTEIN: Use broth instead of milk.
Diabetic Exchanges: 1½ vegetable; ½ fat
REDUCED SODIUM: Use low-sodium broth.
Diabetic Exchanges: ¼ lean meat; 1½ vegetable; ¼ fat

Symptoms of Diabetes

Be Aware of the Symptoms of Diabetes!

Diabetes often goes undiagnosed because many of its symptoms seem so harmless. Recent studies indicate that the early detection of diabetes symptoms and treatment can decrease the chance of developing the complications of diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes

Frequent urination
Unusual thirst
Extreme hunger
Unusual weight loss
Extreme fatigue and Irritability

Type 2 Diabetes

Any of the type 1 symptoms
Frequent infections
Blurred vision
Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal
Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet
Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

Gestational Diabetes

Frequent urination
Unusual thirst
Extreme hunger
Unusual weight loss
Extreme fatigue and Irritability

Many of the signs of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are similar. In both, there is too much glucose in the blood and not enough in the cells of your body. High glucose levels in Type I are due to a lack of insulin because the insulin producing cells have been destroyed. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body’s cells become resistant to insulin that is being produced. Either way, your cells aren’t getting the glucose that they need, and your body lets you know by giving you these signs and symptom

Frequent trips to the bathroom:

Are you visiting the bathroom much more lately? Does it seem like you urinate all day long? Urination becomes more frequent when there is too much glucose in the blood. If insulin is nonexistent or ineffective, the kidneys can’t filter glucose back to the blood. They become overwhelmed and try to draw extra water out of the blood to dilute the glucose. This keeps your bladder full and it keeps you running to the bathroom.

Unquenchable Thirst:

If it feels like you can’t get enough water and you’re drinking much more than usual, it could be a sign of diabetes, especially if it seems to go hand in hand with frequent urination. If your body is pulling extra water out of your blood and you’re running to the bathroom more, you will become dehydrated and feel the need to drink more to replace the water that you are losing.

Losing Weight Without Trying:

This symptom is more noticeable with Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1, the pancreas stops making insulin, possibly due to a viral attack on pancreas cells or because an autoimmune response makes the body attack the insulin producing cells. The body desperately looks for an energy source because the cells aren’t getting glucose. It starts to break down muscle tissue and fat for energy. Type 2 happens gradually with increasing insulin resistance so weight loss is not as noticeable.

Weakness and Fatigue:

It’s that bad boy glucose again. Glucose from the food we eat travels into the bloodstream where insulin is supposed to help it transition into the cells of our body. The cells use it to produce the energy we need to live. When the insulin isn’t there or if the cells don’t react to it anymore, then the glucose stays outside the cells in the bloodstream. The cells become energy starved and you feel tired and run down.

Tingling or Numbness in Your Hands, Legs or Feet:

This symptom is called neuropathy. It occurs gradually over time as consistently high glucose in the blood damages the nervous system, particularly in the extremities. Type 2 diabetes is a gradual onset, and people are often not aware that they have it. Therefore, blood sugar might have been high for more than a few years before a diagnosis is made. Nerve damage can creep up without our knowledge. Neuropathy can very often improve when tighter blood glucose control is achieved.

Other Signs and Symptoms That Can Occur:

Blurred vision, skin that is dry or itchy, frequent infections or cuts and bruises that take a long time to heal are also signs that something is amiss. Again, when these signs are associated with diabetes, they are the result of high glucose levels in the body. If you notice any of the above signs, schedule an appointment with your doctor. He or she will be able to tell you if you have reason to be concerned about a diagnosis of diabetes.

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Preventing Diabetes

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Facts about Preventing Diabetes

Diabetes prevention is as basic as eating more healthfully, becoming more physically active and losing a few extra pounds — and it’s never too late to start. Making a few simple changes in your lifestyle now may help you avoid the serious health complications of diabetes down the road, such as nerve, kidney and heart damage. Consider the latest diabetes prevention tips from the American Diabetes Association.
When it comes to type 2 diabetes — the most common type of diabetes — prevention is a big deal. It’s especially important to make diabetes prevention a priority if you’re at increased risk of diabetes, as an example, if you’re overweight or have a family history of the disease.

The Diabetes Prevention Program

This program is a major federally funded study of 3,234 people at high risk for diabetes, showed that people can delay and possibly preventing Diabetes by losing weight (5 to 7 percent of total body weight) through healthier eating and at least 15 to 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days a week. Changing your lifestyle could be a big step toward diabetes prevention — and it’s never too late to start. Consider these tips.
Here are some of the more common risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing diabetes.

1. Being overweight or obese.

2. Having a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes.

3.Being African American, American Indian, Asian American, Pacific Islander, or Hispanic American/Latino heritage.

4.Having a prior history of gestational diabetes or birth of at least one baby weighing more than 9 pounds.

5.Having high blood pressure measuring 140/90 or higher.

6.Having abnormal cholesterol with HDL (“good”) cholesterol is 35 or lower, or triglyceride level is 250 or higher.

7.Being physically inactive—exercising fewer than three times a week.

Does body weight affect the likelihood

of developing diabetes?

Being overweight or obese is a leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes!

There are many benefits to regular physical activity. Exercise can help you:
-Lose weight
-Lower your blood sugar
-Boosts your sensitivity to insulin — which helps keep your blood sugar within a normal range

Being overweight can keep your body from making and using insulin properly, and can also cause high blood pressure. Research shows that both aerobic exercise and resistance training can help control diabetes, but the greatest benefit comes from a fitness program that includes both.

What is prediabetes?

Doctors sometimes call this condition impaired fasting glucose(IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)

People with blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not yet in the diabetic range have “prediabetes.” Insulin resistance and prediabetes usually have no symptoms. You may have one or both conditions for several years without noticing anything. Progression to diabetes among those with prediabetes is not inevitable. Weight loss and increased physical activity among people with prediabetes may prevent or delay diabetes and may return blood glucose levels to normal. If you have prediabetes, you have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. People with prediabetes have a higher risk of heart disease.

Diabetes prevention: Tips for taking control

- Get plenty of fiber – It may help you
-Reduce your risk of diabetes by improving your blood sugar
-Lower your risk of heart disease
-Promote weight loss by helping you feel full
-Foods high in fiber include fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts and seeds.

- Lose extra weight

If you’re overweight, diabetes prevention may hinge on weight loss. Every pound you lose can improve your health. And you may be surprised by how much. In one study, overweight adults reduced their diabetes risk by 16 percent for every kilogram (2.2 pounds) of weight lost. Also, those who lost a modest amount of weight — at least 5 to 10 percent of initial body weight — and exercised regularly reduced the risk of developing diabetes by almost 60 percent over three years.

 - Make healthier choices and Skip fad diets

The glycemic index diet, low-carb diets, or other fad diets may help you lose weight at first, but their effectiveness at preventing diabetes isn’t known nor are their long-term effects. By excluding or strictly limiting a particular food group, you may be giving up essential nutrients. Think variety and portion control as part of an overall healthy-eating plan.

- Opt for whole grains

Look for the word “whole” on the package and among the first few items in the ingredient list. It’s not clear why, whole grains may reduce your risk of diabetes and help maintain blood sugar levels. Make at least half your grains whole grains. Many foods made from whole grains come ready to eat, including various breads, pasta products and many cereals.

When you should consult a physician

If you’re older than age 45 and your weight is normal, ask your doctor if diabetes testing is appropriate for you.

The American Diabetes Association recommends blood glucose screening if:

-You’re age 45 or older and overweight
-You’re younger than age 45 and overweight with one or more additional risk factors for type2 diabetes
Share your concerns about diabetes prevention with your doctor. He or she will applaud your efforts to keep diabetes at bay, and perhaps offer additional suggestions based on your medical history or other factors.

Diabetic Neuropathy

Nerve Damage from Diabetes is Called Diabetic

Neuropathy

Nearly Half of all People with Diabetes Have Some Form of Nerve Damage!

Over time excess glucose in the blood can damage the walls of tiny blood vessels that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs. Nerves send messages to and from your brain about pain, temperature and touch. They tell your muscles when and how to move. They also control body systems that digest food and pass urine. It is more common in those who have had the disease for a number of years and can lead to many kinds of problems.
If you keep your blood glucose levels on target, you may help prevent or delay nerve damage. If you already have nerve damage, this will help prevent or delay further damage. There are also other treatments that can help.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Also known as sensorimotor neuropathy, this can cause tingling, pain, numbness, or weakness in your feet and hands.

Autonomic Neuropathy

Autonomic neuropathy affects the nerves in your body that control your body systems such as digestive system, urinary tract, sex organs, heart and blood vessels, sweat glands, and eyes.

Additional Types of Neuropathy

Additional types of neuropathy include charcot’s joint, cranial neuropathy, compression mononeuropathy, femoral neuropathy, diabetic amyotrophy, thoracic or lumbar radiculopathy, and unilateral foot drop.
<h3>Steps to Prevent or Delay Nerve Damage</h3>

The most important thing for someone who has  diabetic neuropathy can do is to keep their blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. Employ regular exercise to maintain a healthy,normal weight.. This will help keep blood sugars closer to normal. This will in turn,  limit the damage high blood sugars can cause to nerves. Exercise will have the added benefit of keeping muscles that may be weakened by decreasing nerve activity to remain strong and toned.

Diabetes Diet Plan

It’s Vitally Important to Form and Manage a Healthy

Diabetes Diet Plan

Diabetes is one of the only diseases where your food plays a part in the treatment.

Eating too much can make you overweight, which raises insulin resistance. The kinds of foods you eat can affect your blood glucose levels. Diabetes is one of the only diseases where your food plays a part in the treatment. Learning how to manage food and meals means taking good care of yourself. Try new recipes that cater to your condition and improve health!!

Good nutrition for a diabetes diet plan can be approached on three levels.

1. What foods should I eat?

2. When should I eat?

3. Should I watch my portion sizes?

How is diabetes managed? Planning your food consumption.

These three will have a major impact on your blood glucose and blood lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides) levels. Selecting the proper types of foods, as well as appropriate quantities you can significantly improve your ability to control your blood glucose and blood lipids.

What does it mean to eat healthy?

Good News!!You can still consume the food you like.

Healthy eating most certainly does not mean you will go hungry and have to spend much of your life desperately trying to resist temptation. All it means is that you will have to be much more aware of how much carbohydrate, fat and protein you consume each time you eat. You just have to get the balance right.
Carbohydrates-Carbohydrates are most abundantly found in fruit, vegetables, yogurt, sweets, pasta and bread.
We cannot live without carbohydrates; our bodies need them. The body turns the carbohydrate into blood glucose -which is needed by our cells for energy and growth. If you consume the same amount of carbohydrates each time you eat – especially if those times are at the same time each day – you will be well on your way towards controlling your blood glucose. If consumption of glucose can maintain a regular pattern, it will be easier for you to balance food with your medicine(s) and physical activity with optimum blood glucose control.
Do not skip meals, no matter what your blood glucose readings indicate. All you will achieve is a more aggressive fluctuation in your blood glucose levels – something you want to try to avoid.

Variety and moderation

A moderated,varied diet is perfect if you want to experience good health. Carbohydrate intake should consist of a variety of fruits, vegetables,and grains. Plenty of fiber helps control blood glucose.
Brown rice has more fiber than white rice; whole-grain breads have the most fiber. If you are cooking or baking, choose whole-wheat or whole grain flours. Include legumes, such as beans; they are a great source of fiber. Dark green leafy vegetables and dark yellow ones have a slower release of carbohydrates than most other vegetables.

Carbohydrates, Protein and Fat Ratio

According to the Mayo Clinic, your daily intake of calories should consist of:

-Carbohydrates 45% to 65%
-Proteins 15% to 20%
-Fats 20% to 35%

Your blood sugar control will be ideal, as will your weight if you adhere to your meal plan for portion sizes and eating times. You should eat the same mix of carbohydrates, proteins and fats each day. The more you vary from your food plan, the Mayo Clinic informs, the more your blood glucose will fluctuate.
The rewards will be worth it!

The ideal eating pattern for a person with diabetes is not really any different from what a non-diabetic person would do if he/she aimed for optimum health and fitness. However, the diabetes patient has the added incentive of trying to prevent complications from developing, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney problems, vision problems and leg and feet sores.
Foods on offer for a diabetes patient are extensive and varied. You will be able to plan a wide range of tasty and interesting meals.
The food pyramidDiabetes Food Pyramid

When you talk to your health care professional, diabetes educator or dietician, they will probably mention the Food Pyramid.At the base there are foods rich in carbohydrates, such as grains, then there are fruit and vegetables.Above are meat, fish, milk and cheese; which are rich in protein. At the top are the fatty foods.Almost all diabetes and medical associations say that you should eat more from the groups at the bottom of the pyramid, and less from those at the top. It is vital that you talk to an expert about your eating plan. It needs to be tailored according to your weight, age, which medications you are taking and how physically active you are (and, if so, when during the day you are likely to be the most active).Although sweets aren’t totally off limits, it’s important to limit how many sweet foods you do eat.

Glycemic index

The Glycemic Index (GI) describes what effect certain foods can have on our blood glucose levels. A high GI tends to cause more blood glucose fluctuations than a low one. Not all carbohydrates are the same. Ask your dietician.

- Information on the Glycemic Index from the Canadian Diabetes Association

Final Words

1. Increase your intake of vegetables and fruits. Try for 5 to 7 servings a day.
2.Limit the amount of fatty foods you eat.
3.Limit alcohol consumption. If you do drink, keep it to 1 to 2 a day. Choose heart-healthy red wine. The antioxidants found in wine are beneficial!

Smart for Life 42 Day Variety Program

Food plays a big part in how well your blood glucose levels are managed. When you combine this with the other cornerstones of diabetes, exercise and medications, you are on your way to feeling better and living well.

Complications of Diabetes

Diabetes Genes

Complications of Diabetes

Diabetes increases your risk for many serious health problems.


The good news? With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of the following complications:

-Eye Complications-Keep your risk of glaucoma, cataracts and other eye problems low with regular checkups.

-Skin Complications-Be alert for symptoms of skin infections and other skin disorders common in people with diabetes.

-Heart Disease

-High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)-High blood pressure—also called hypertension—raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease.

-Mental Health-Deal with natural emotions like sadness, anger and denial before they lead to depression.

-Diabetes and Hearing Loss-Diabetes and hearing loss are two of America’s most widespread health concerns.

-Diabetes and Oral Health Problems-Research shows that there is an increased prevalence of gum disease among those with diabetes.

-Gastroparesis. Get treatment to help you manage gastroparesis, so that you can be as healthy and comfortable as possible.Gastroparesis is a condition that reduces the ability of the stomach to empty its contents, but there is no blockage (obstruction).

-Ketoacidosis (DKA)-Know the warning signs of DKA and check urine for ketones, especially when you’re sick.-Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal.[1] Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person’s breath. This is due to acetone, a direct byproduct of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish (remover).[2] Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of aceton

 

-Neuropathy (Nerve Damage)-Nerve damage from diabetes called diabetic neuropathy can lead to many kinds of problems.Diabetic neuropathy is damage to nerves in the body that occurs due to high blood sugar levels from diabetes.

-Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)-Blood sugar levels rise dangerously high in HHNS, a rare and serious condition. Blood sugar levels rise, in HHNS, and your body tries to get rid of the excess sugar by passing it into your urine. You have to go to the bathroom more often and you make lots of urine, at first. Later you may not have to go to the bathroom as often, and your urine becomes very dark. You may be very thirsty. Even if you are not thirsty, you need to drink liquids. If you don’t drink enough liquids at this point, you can get dehydrated.

-Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)-Keep your diabetes and blood pressure under control to lower the chance of getting kidney disease.

-Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)-Talk to your doctor if you have mild leg pain, troubling walking, tingling in the legs, or other symptoms of PAD. (P.A.D.) is a disease in which plaque (plak) builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, fibrous tissue, and other substances in the blood.

-Stroke-Maintain target levels for blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol to reduce your risk of stroke.
Stress

Relax! Making lifestyle changes can help reduce mental stress and manage your blood glucose levels.

Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes Mellitus

Commonly know as diabetes.It is a of a group of metabolic diseases where a person has high blood sugar, either because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced or because the body does not produce enough insulin. Polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger)are classical symptoms produced by high blood sugar.

The three main types of diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

This is the result from the body’s failure to produce insulin. It presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

This results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The third main form, gestational diabetes occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Some of the other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
Leonard Thompson (1908–1935) is regarded as the very first person to have received injection of insulin as a treatment for diabetes. Thompson received his first injection in Toronto,Ontario, on January 11, 1922, at 14 years of age. The first injection had an apparent impurity which was the likely cause for the allergic reaction he displayed. After a refined process was developed by James Collip to improve the beef-pancreas extract, the second dosage was successfully delivered to the young patient twelve days after the first.
Thompson showed signs of improved health and went on to live 13 more years taking doses of insulin, eventually dying of pneumonia at age 27.
Since insulin became available in 1921, all forms of diabetes have been treatable and type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications. Both types 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that cannot be cured. Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success in type 1 DM; gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 DM. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery.
Until insulin was made clinically available, a diagnosis of diabetes was an invariable death sentence, more or less quickly (usually within months, and frequently within weeks or days).
Without proper treatments, Diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage). Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as smoking cessation and maintaining a healthy body weight.

A List of Famous People and Celebrities with Diabetes Mellitus

Famous People with Diabetes and Celebrities with

Diabetes Mellitus

You are not alone in having Diabetes Mellitus!

Globally, as of 2012, an estimated 346 million people have type 2 diabetes. Here is a partial list of some celebrities with Diabetes and famous people with Diabetes.There is no particular order to the list. What surprises me personally is the number of prominent athletes in this list. Given the symptoms of Diabetes following, it further exemplifies the fortitude and drive of these individuals.This applies to the entire list as well.

symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes

Frequent urination
Unusual thirst
Extreme hunger
Unusual weight loss
Extreme fatigue and Irritability

Type 2 Diabetes

Any of the type 1 symptoms
Frequent infections
Blurred vision
Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal
Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet
Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

ATHLETES/SPORTS

Wasim Akram – Cricketer
Arthur Ashe – Tennis Player
Walter Barnes – NFL Philadelphia
James “Buster” Dougls – Boxer
Kenny Duckette – NFL N Orleans
Chris Dudley – NBA NY Knicks
Rick Dudley – Hockey
Scott Dunton – Surfer
Curt Frasier – NHL Chicago Black Hawks
“Smokin’ Joe” Frazier – Boxer
Kris Freeman – Olympic Skier
Bobby Clarke – NHL Philadelphia Flyers
Ty Cobb – MLB (Detroit Tigers)
Scott Coleman – Swam English Channel
Mike Echols – NFL Tennessee Titans
Joe Gibbs – NFL Washington Redskins
Jonathan Hayes – NFL Pittsburgh Steelers
Chuck Heidenrich – Skier
Jackie Robinson – Baseball player
Sugar Ray Robinson – Boxer
Kellie Keuhne – Golfer
Bill Gullickson – MLB Cincinnati Reds
Gary Jr. Hall – Olympic Gold Swimmer
Ayden Byle – World-famous Runner
Chris Jarvis – World Champion rower
Pam Fernandes – Para Olympian
Scott Verplank – Golfer
Jay Hewitt – Iron Man triathlete
Billy Jean King – Tennis Player
James Hunter – MLB Baseball
Kendall Simmons – NFL Pittsburgh
Mike Sinclair – NFL Philadelphia Eagles
Sir Steven Redgrave – Olympic
Michelle McGann – Golfer
Jason Johnson – MLB Detroit Tigers
Dan Reichert – MLB Kansas City Royals
Adam Morrison – Basketball
Ron Santo – MLB Chicago Cubs

MUSICIANS

Nat Adderly – Jazz Muscian
Syd Barret – Pink Floyd
Danny Joe Brown – Singer
James Brown – Singer
Nell Carter – Singer, actress
Johnny Cash – Musician
Paul Cezanne – Artist
Carol Channing – Singer, Actress
Mark Collie – Country Singer
David Crosby – Singer
Norman Whitfield – Musician
Neil Young – Singer
Ella Fitzgerald – Singer
Mick Fleetwood – Musician
Aretha Franklin – Singer
Melvin Franklin – Singer
Gary Valenciano – Singer
Luther Vandross – Singer
Miles Davis – Jazz musician
Killah Ghostface – Rapper
Marvin Isley – Singer
Mahalia Jackson – Gospel Singer
Rick James – Singer
Andrew Lloyd Webber – Composer
Mama Cass Elliott – Singer
Dizzy Gillespie – Jazz Musician
Jerry Garcia – Singer, Musician
Waylon Jennings – Country Singer
Herbert “Tiny Tim” Kahury – Singer
B.B. King – Blues singer
Tim Parker – Rapper
Elvis Presley – Singer
Bret Michaels – Singer
Peggy Lee – Jazz singer
Tommy Lee – Drummer
Curtis Mayfield – Soul singer
LaBelle Patty – Soul Singer

ACTORS/Actresses/ENTERTAINERS

Wilford Brimley – Actor
Anthony J. Brown – Actor
Halle Berry – Actress
James Cagney – Actor
Alvin Childress – Actor
Dick Clark – Entertainer, TV producer
Jack Benny – Comedian
James Doohan – Actor
Stephen Furst – Actor
Victor Garber – Actor
Dale Evans – Entertainer
Delta Burke – Actress, Miss USA
Nicole Johnson Baker – Miss America
Jackie Gleason – Actor
Dana Hill – Actress
Dorian Gregory – Actor
Larry King – Talk Show Host
Jerry Mather – Actor
Kevin Nealon – Comedian
Carroll O’Conner – Actor
Park Overall – Actress
Mary Tyler Moore – Actress
Della Reese – Actress, singer
Esther Rolle – Actress
Jim Turner – Actor
Elizabeth Taylor – Actress
Richard Mulligan – Actor
Mae West – Actress
Mother Love – Entertainer, author
Sharon Stone – Actress
Sir Harry Seacomb – Comedian
Elaine Stritch – Comedian
Jean Smart – Actress

AUTHORS

Piers Anthony – Author
Ernest Hemingway – Author
Linda Goodman – Author
Kesey – Novelist
Carl Rowan – Columnist, Author
Mario Puzo – Author
Anne Rice – Author
Lyle Leverich – Biographer
H. G. Wells – Author
Steve McCafferry – Author, Poet

POLITICAL LEADERS/ACTIVISTS

Menachem Begin – PM of Israel
Marion Barry – Mayor Of Washington DC
Yuri Andropov – Soviet Union Leader
Paddy Devlin – Politician
Hafiz al Assad – Syrian President
King Fahd – King of Saudi Arabia
Samuel Block – Civil Rights Activist
Cardinal John Krol – Bishop
Nikita Kruschev – USSR Premier
Wei Jingsheng – Chinese Dissident
Fiorello LaGuardia – Mayor of NY City
James Lloyd – Congressman
Gamal Nasser – Leader of Egypt
Anwar Sadat – President of Egypt
Buddy Roemer – Politician
Winnie Mandela – Politician
Joseph Kolter – Politician

NEWS/MEDIA

Richard Bartlett – Screenwriter
Fran Carpentier – Editor
Mike Huckabee – Politician
Bill Janklow – South Dakota Politician
Sylvia Chase – Journalist (20/20)
Jim Hamblin – Newsman
Rodolfo Garcia – AP Reporter
George Lucas – Director and producer
Jason Leeuewenberg – Sports caster

MISCELLANEOUS

Ralph Bunche – Nobel Peace Winner
Thomas Edison – Scientist
Sarah Bina – Championship clogger
W. L. Gherra – Payless Drugs
Ray Krock – McDonald’s
Douglas Cairns – Pilot
Bill Davidson – Motorcycles
John Davidson – Motorcycles
Nicole Johnson – Miss America, 1999
Leonard Thompson – First Insulin Recipient
Zippora Karz – NYC Ballet Soloist
Walt Kelly – Cartoonist
Cynthia Ice – Lotus Development
Dr. George Minot – Nobel Prize Medal
Milton Rubicam – Genealogist